algae to create biodegradable water bottles

product design student Ari Jónsson has combined red algae powder with water to create a biodegradable bottle.

Jónsson – who studies at the Iceland Academy of the Arts – exhibited the project during this year’s Reykjavik design festival DesignMarch from 10 to 13 March 2016.

After reading about the amount of waste plastic produced every day, the designer felt an “urgent” need to develop a replacement material.

“I read that 50 per cent of plastic is used once and then thrown away so I feel there is an urgent need to find ways to replace some of the unreal amount of plastic we make, use and throw away each day,” Jónsson told Dezeen. “Why are we using materials that take hundreds of years to break down in nature to drink from once and then throw away?”

Algae water bottle by Ari Jonsson

He began studying the strengths and weaknesses of different materials to determine what could be suitable for use as a water bottle. Eventually he came across a powdered form of agar, a substance made from algae.

When agar powder is added to water, it forms a jelly-like material. After experimenting to find the right proportions, Jónsson slowly heated the substance before pouring it into a bottle-shaped mould that had been kept in the freezer.

Future Plastics

What Does the Future Hold for Plastics?
Even though future plastics are workhorse material in most industries yet they have made a
bad name for themselves for two reasons. One, it is made from petroleum materials and
secondly, they litter the environment. However, the volatile nature of oil price has
instigated a clamor for an increase in research into bioplastics. A key driver of the
packaging industry for future plastics  currently is the replacement of oil-based plastics to a renewable
source due to the depletion of oil.
Bioplastics currently account for around 1% of total world consumption of plastics.
Despite the low figure, the need and request for renewable, non-composite, durable and
recyclable product is increasing by the day. All this coupled with the fluctuation of oil
price and interest in social responsibility is taking research from the drawing board into
the laboratories and an expected mass production of bioplastics in the future.
One issue that has affected the spiral growth of bioplastics is the fear of individuals on
the price of food. Many bioplastics rely on food to make ethanol, this may end up driving
up the price of food. The masses are afraid that using food crops for bioplastics might
take the food out of their mouth as they cannot match the financial superiority of the
companies. However, experts are countering this claim neglecting that perception is not
easily changeable.
The future plastics is hinged heavily on bioplastics. Even the automobile industry is
moving away from non-renewable sources and the packaging industry will never be left


Food packaging materials

Food packaging materials:

Every piece of food today is packed in plastic packaging. The bad thing is the packaging is not biodegradable. Many people throw it away, but microorganisms cannot dismantle them.

Those food packages destroy nature. For example, in the world there is not one single island that has no plastic rubbish on the beach. Even if there are no humans living there, the rubbish of food packaging and other plastics is still there.

It is easy to avoid these problems. Use reusable bags if you go shopping for example. Do not throw pieces of plastic packaging away into nature or invest in biodegradable plastic because this material will not destroy the future of our next generations. There is a new invention; it is like a water bubble filled with water. The inventors, young adults, say that this is the future of water bottles because you only have to bite into the bubble and suck the water out of it. The rest of thebubble is edible because it is bioplastic out of seaweed. And because it is edible it is also biodegradable, you can put the bottle in the compost or give it to a center which can recycle it. Food packaging material can be out of seaweed but also out of starch, cellulose, pectin and the peel of some fruits. Only 1% from all plastic products are made out of biodegradable materials.

How to make bioplastic

To get bioplastic, you have to mix a biopolymer with a plasticizer and some additives. Biopolymer is responsible for the stability.

Plasticizer is for flexibility and the additives change the colors, for example. For a polymer you can use starch gelatin or agar. The most used plasticizer is glycerin. It interacts with the polymer and gives flexibility to the end product. Glycerin is used because it is very cheap and abundant. Heat all the ingredients slowly up so that they get liquid. Mix them up and let them dry for a few hours. Then you have got your own bioplastic. All in all you can say, bioplastic is manufactured out of natural materials. So if the product comes back into nature, it is ok because it is just a mixture out of natural materials. The good thing about such biodegradable plastic is that everybody can mix those ingredients at home. You can order them on the internet and use your stove to heat them up. At the end you can form the plastic in every form you want as long as it is liquid. For example, you can do cups for drinking or plates for food, some foil or other containers and boxes. The possibilities are endless. With food color you can paint the plastic as you wish. All in all this is a very good opportunity to produce useful plastic parts that you need and you cannot buy anywhere.

Eco friendly packaging

Eco friendly packaging:

The world today has to think about the world tomorrow. The next generation wants a clean planet, too.


We cannot pollute our environment with rubbish like food packaging. The majority of food packaging hurts nature or destroys the environment. This is an important point because 10% of all plastic produced ends as rubbish in the sea. Big parts are crushed into small pieces -> microplastic. Those particles are eaten by fish and these fish are eaten by humans so the plastic gets into the eco system and destroys it slowly.

Lots of animal species have already died out because of sea rubbish. Sea turtles for example eat plastic bags because those bags look similar to jelly fish, which is the natural food of the turtles. But if they eat those bags, they die slowly and painfully. If the plastic was biodegradable, this wouldn’t be a problem. Animals could digest it. Also the biggest animals in the world have problems with plastic.

Whales are eating it, too. Especially the micro particles of plastic are problematic. Many whales are eating krill by filtering it through their whalebone. With the krill some plastic also gets into the mouth and the stomach of the animal. It takes a little bit longer, but also a 35m long animal like a whale can be seriously affected by a big enough amount of micro plastic.

Biodegradable materials


Biodegradable materials are plastics, which enzymes can dismantle into small natural pieces, like CO2and H2O.

Most biodegradable materials come from nature and are capable of being returned to it in a way that the natural environment is notharmed. 35% of all plastics produced are ‘’one-time-users’’. After use, people throw them away. That is very bad- it is important to use biodegradable materials for packaging.

Organisms, or their enzymes, can dismantle them without problems, because they already know those natural materials. They do not die from metabolizing these materials. For example you can produce biodegradable materials from bananas. You have to mix it with a binder and heat it up. After cooling down you get a brown black colored substance. With this material you can form a plant cup for seedlings, for example. Lots of garden centers are already buying those plastic cups and sell them with the plants inside. After buying you can immediately put them into the earth. The cup will be decomposed after a while and is an excellent fertilizer for your garden.

Biodegradable Plastic

Biodegradable plastic:
A biodegradable plastic is considered as such, if microorganisms (decomposers) can
dismantle them. The plastic has to change its characteristics and chemical structure. Mostly
the plastic gets dismantled into CO 2 , H 2 O and biomass- those materials are considered as
natural ones and do not pollute the environment.
Plastics are very important in our world today. They are used everywhere and the
manufacturing is cheap. We need plastics in our life. Normal plastic is made out of oil that
occurs deep in the earth under the sea. The problem is that some additives of this plastic are
similar to natural hormones- they act like softeners. Other additives are hardeners, colorants
and balancers. The enzymes in organisms process them.
The consequences for sea animals have not been fully researched, but many species die
painfully because of micro plastics in the sea. For example, sea turtles eat plastic bags, which
are swimming around in the water. Normally sea turtles eat jelly fish. Those fish are white
and transparent so they seem similar to the plastic bags. Animals cannot distinguish
between rubbish and food so they eat it without thinking about it. Some small fish are eating
the small plastic parts on the water and those fish are eaten by us humans. So the plastic
gets back into our body and damages it slowly. These problems can be prevented by
biodegradable plastic.

A Word On Eco Packaging

Eco packaging a new sustainable way to package goods in a safe and environmentally friendly way, the world is now becoming more environmentally friendly by the day the next step is to develop eco packaging that can be recycled this help to sustain a good healthy environments for the generations to come.

There are businesses supporting the innovation of eco packaging for example biopac technology believe that this is the sustainable packaging solution. Eco packaging can be many different things for example many coffee outlets, festivals and outdoor events now have eco-friendly drink cups these are a FSC board lined starch material these cups are 100% compostable meaning they will not harm the environment


Eco packaging saves large amounts of emission from reaching the atmosphere for example over a year we can save 4,908,885kg of carbon this can result in the greenhouse gas levels slowly lowering over time and helping to improve the global warming crisis.

Problems & Solutions

Household products are a large portion of the contribution to landfill waste, for example, crisp bags and toothpaste tube are two of the hardest products to recycle due to the separation of materials within the product themselves. Crisp packets, made from seven layers of foil and plastic made this way to reduce shipping volume. A hard ineffective way to help recycle the market for recycling crisp bags is not cost effective and there is no market for it. A solution to this is that although it is not quick fix if company’s and businesses decide to go forward fewer layers or metal and plastic will be fused together this will reduce time and cost of the separation and recycling of the crisps packets.